9th Annual Symposium
Physics of Cancer
September 24-26, 2018
|PoC - Physics of Cancer - Annual Symposium|
Biochemical and nanomechanical fingerprints of melanoma development
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Searching for new biomarkers is still a great challenge because, so far, there is no single biomarker which has an ability to detect cancers of different organs with high specificity and sensitivity. That is why interdisciplinary approach combining complimentary techniques and the convergence of diverse disciplines can accelerate the progress in cancer diagnosis and therapy. One of the emerging directions is to correlate cellular biomechanics with biochemical and biophysical properties of single cells. The main aim of the studies presented here is to demonstrate that a combination of two techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS) delivers biochemical and nanomechanical fingerprints of melanoma progression. To realize it, the mechanical and surface chemical properties of melanoma cell lines originating from various stages of melanoma progression were evaluated. Measurements were carried out for three groups encompassing cells originating from VGP primary tumor sites and those derived from skin and lung metastasis.
AFM has become a well-established method in the research of biological materials ranging from single proteins to living cells, as it allows not only for the topography measurements with a very good spatial resolution but it enables also the analysis of the elastic properties of various materials, including single cells. While the majority of solid tumors is more rigid than their surrounding environment, it is known that individual cancer cells are more deformable than their benign counterparts. In our studies, based on the elasticity measurements, the melanoma cells biomechanics was quantified by the Young’s modulus . The biochemical properties of melanoma cell surfaces were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF SIMS). Since the ToF-SIMS experiments have to be carried out in high vacuum conditions, biological samples like cells require a special treatment . Subsequently, high resolution mass spectra were collected for each melanoma cell type and analyzed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) . Our findings show that both characteristics of cancer-related changes, nanomechanical and biochemical fingerprints, increase with a stage of melanoma progression. Simultaneously, proposed methodology of AFM and ToF SIMS measurements can be successfully implemented in the studies on increasing the effectiveness of anticancer drugs.