11:00 am – 12:45 pm
- Organised by Keiichi Uchida
- Keiichi Uchida, Chair
- Keiichi Uchida, “Missionaries’ Attitude to Mandarin (Guanhua)”
- Masazumi Shioyama, “The Words of Time in Chinese Bible”
- Kayoko Okumura, “A Study on Some Chinese Affidavits of Foreigners”
- Keiko Ibushi, “A Study on Missionaries ‘s Chinese Grammar Books”
- Feng Zhu, “Western Food Culture Written in Missionaries’ Chinese Books”
This panel will concentrate on missionaries’ culture activities in China, including language study, literature translation and Bible translation, etc. between 16–19 century, trying to examine their contributions to Chinese and Japanese Language and culture.
Keiichi Uchida, “Missionaries’ Attitude to Mandarin (Guanhua)”
Westerners (especially missionaries) have been describing the various phenomena of Chinese accurately since early on by comparing them with their own languages. In particular, I have mentioned what is a Mandarin and what is inside the Mandarin, that is, the difference between Northern and Southern Mandarin. These studies have greatly contributed to the study of Chinese. However, most of the research so far has been on the Pekinese Mandarin or northern Mandarin, and not much on the Nankinese Mandarin. In this paper, I intend to discuss in detail the materials of Nankinese Mandarin, which were recently discovered by the author, and the characteristics of Nankinese Mandarin by analysing them.
Masazumi Shioyama, “The Words of Time in Chinese Bible”
This paper will try to examine how missionaries translated the words of time into Chinese which were quite different conceptions between East and West.
China has its own traditional expression of time. Ozaki Minoru 1980 says: Before the Qing dynasty, China divided its time of day into 96 Ke (刻), and also divided it into 12 Chenke (辰刻). One Chenke (辰刻) is equivalent to the current 120 minutes. China has traditionally not had an expression of 60 minutes as one hour. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, in coastal cities south of China, expressions such as “~ dianzhong(点钟)”, which indicates 60 minutes, have emerged. Finally, a new expression that lasts 60 minutes as one hour has emerged in China.
In the process of modern East-West language and cultural contact, Western Christian missionaries translated Western time expressions in the Bible text into Chinese time expressions in translating the Christian Bible from Western languages to Chinese Language. This paper looks at how modern Western Christian missionaries translated the time expressions of two different cultures (Western and Chinese). This paper examines the characteristics of the expression of time, using the Chinese Bible of Mandarin versions as a source. From the results of this paper, I can point out the following. The style of the Mandarin versions text was gradually revised from the style of the early Chinese translation of the Bible and changed to the style that closes to the spoken language. All expressions of time in the text of the Mandarin version have converged to traditional Chinese forms of expression. This is exactly the same phenomenon that is observed in the process of translation of the Bible.
Kayoko Okumura, “A Study on Some Chinese Affidavits of Foreigners”
This paper will concentrate on some foreigners’ affidavits written in the Chinese language and will examine these materials from a linguistical point. I will show up some documents of affidavits about the matter of Yunsy (1681–1726), Yuntang(1683–1726) and Portuguese missionary Joan Mourao(1681–1726) that have occurred in China in the 18th century, I will try to organise formats and contents of the whole documents. And then, I will focus on confessions and will examine how described the confession of a foreign missionary in the Chinese language. Finally, through the comparison of style and vocabulary in confessions and non-confidential parts, I would like to mention the relationship between written oral language and written language.
Keiko Ibushi, “A Study on Missionaries ‘s Chinese Grammar Books”
This paper will take some missionaries’ Chinese grammar books as research materials to analyse their attitudes to the Chinese Language. From the 17th century to the 19th century, missionaries and European sinologists wrote many Chinese grammar books in the process of learning Chinese. By comparing Chinese with their own language, they accurately described various phenomena of Chinese. In the early days, although Westerners refer to the traditional Chinese classification of real 實字 and 虛字, they still use the part of speech classification of Western grammar to analyse Chinese grammar, so as to facilitate western Chinese learners. The classification of parts of speech in each grammar book is different, and there are corresponding changes from the 17th century to the 19th century, which shows the author’s attitude to the Chinese Language. In the process of continuous research on Chinese, Westerners have a deeper understanding and strive to grasp the characteristics of Chinese more accurately. This paper intends to analyse the Chinese grammar books and Chinese textbooks written by early Westerners, discuss the characteristics of Chinese described by early Westerners and try to explore the value of Chinese grammar research history.
Feng Zhu, “Western Food Culture Written in Missionaries’ Chinese Books“
This paper will use some Missionaries’ Chinese books, such as Giulio Aleni’s Xu Fang Da Wen (1637), Paul Perny’s Dialogues Chinois-Latins(1872), and Xi Fa Shi Pu(1889), to examine how did they introduce western food culture in Chinese from the linguistical point of view. All these materials have talked about the table manner, methods of cooking and names of food in western food, which is quite different from China. Through the comparison of different materials in different periods, I would like to examine the translation terms they have used and especially analyse how did they translate the western food culture by creating some new terms, finally how were these new-terms accepted by the Chinese language and influenced Chinese food culture.
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